1 For the full text of this speech, see http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-at-Cairo-University-6-04-09/.
2 For the full report of this conference, see http://islamuswest.org/publications_islam_and_the_West/Who_Speaks_For_Islam/.
3 Zitouna University, part of the Tunisian university system, is the modern–day incarnation of the renowned institute of Muslim higher education associated with the Zitouna Mosque, which was founded in the 8th century CE. Today it is divided into two sections: the Higher Institute of Theology, and the Higher Institute of Islamic Civilization.
4 The Qajar dynasty ruled Iran from 1794 until 1925, when the coup d’état undertaken by Reza Khan (ruling as the shah Reza Pahlavi) was formally recognized by Iran’s national assembly.
5 See note 1.
7 For a full description of this event, see http://muslim voicesfestival.org/event/youssou-n%27dour. For Associated Press coverage of the concert, see http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_MUSLIM_MUSIC_ CONTROVERSY?SITE=IADES&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT.
8 For more on this event, see http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E06E1D8123FF932A15753C1A9639C8B63.
9 See note 1.
10 For the full review, see http://www.beliefnet.com/Faiths/Islam/2009/03/Crusading-for-Modern-Islamic-Art.aspx.
12 For a recent article about M. F. Husain’s work and the controversies it has sparked, see http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/09/world/asia/09india.html.
13 For more information about this book and Black Dog Publishing, see http://blackdogonline.com/all-books/contemporary-art-in-the-middle-east.html.
15 For more on Abdurahim Hamidov, see Jean During, “Snapshot: Abdurahim Hamidov — An Eminent Contemporary Master,” Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, edited by Ruth M. Stone, James Porter, and Timothy Rice (Routledge, 2004).
16 For more on Mark Weil’s murder, see http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/08/world/asia/08weil.html.
17 The text of this verse, which is generally considered an endorsement of pluralism and diversity, reads: “O mankind! We created you from a single pair of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. The most honorable of you in the sight of God is the most righteous among you. Truly, God is All–Knowing, and All–Aware.”
21 Kassir was killed in June 2005 by a bomb placed under the driver’s seat of his car; while there was little evidence to suggest the identity of the killers, Kassir’s murder was widely attributed to the Syrian government. For more on the murder, see NY Times online >.
22 An April 2007 report by E–Marketer, “Blogs Rank Among Top Websites,” lists Farsi as the tenth–most–popular blogging language in the world. See http://www.emarketer.com/Results.aspx?N=0&Ntk=basic&Ntt=farsi%20blogging. According to Internet World Stats’ 2009 report, Arabic is the eighth–most–used language on the web. See http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm. English, which remains the most–used language, is used by 29.1% of Internet users.
23 For more on these concepts, see Nye’s Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (Public Affairs, 2005).
25 For more about Huntington’s thesis, see his book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (Simon & Schuster, 1998).
26 For more information about the “Big Read” program, see http://www.neabigread.org/. For more on the Institute of Museum and Library Services’s involvement, see http://www.imls.gov/about/bigread.shtm.
27 Italian governmental and non–governmental cultural organizations were active throughout the Middle East in this period, and particularly targeted local youth for cultural activities and — in some cases — trips to Italy.Back to the top.